What is a bug tracking tool?

All you need to know about a bug tracking tool
A Bug Tracking tool is a Software Tester's silent weapon to keep track of all issues reported in the past. It's very necessary to keep a track of all issues in order to know how may issues have been reported against a ticket. It also helps us in commenting the quantity of code being developed.

Most common bug tracking tools being used today are JIRA and Bugzilla. Jira is a paid tool from Atlassian whereas Bugzilla is a free tool.
Common fields of a bug: 
A bug primarily contains the following mentioned fields:

1. Project: Name of project
2. Issue Type: Epic/Story/Task/Sub-task/Bug
3. Summary: Brief one-liner Summary of the Issue
4. Reporter: Reporter name
5. Description: Description of the issue containing screenshots, Steps to reproduce, Expected & Actual output.
6. Priority: Priority of the bug logged.
7. Labels: Feature to which bug is related.
8. Environment: URL where bug is encountered (Staging/UAT/Production)
9. Attachments: Screenshots(if any)
10. Assignee: Developer who needs to fix the bug.
11. Status: Current status of bug w.r.t. predefined Bug lifecycle.

A bug tracking tool like JIRA also helps in creating User Stories, Sprint planning, Task estimation, Calculating Spillovers, Generating burndown charts on sprint closure.
A bug tracking tool itself is a process and helps in process adherence and provides a clear visibility of deliverables

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